Thursday, 22 September 2016

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer

The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. During digestion, food moves through the stomach and small intestine into the colon. The colon absorbs water and nutrients from the food and stores waste matter (stool). Stool moves from the colon into the rectum before it leaves the body.
Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. Most colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp, which may form on the inner wall of the colon or rectum. Some polyps become cancer over time. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer.
Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer in men and women.
Symptoms of colorectal cancer
Signs and symptoms of colon cancer tend not to be specific. In other words, the signs and symptoms can occur due to a number of different conditions. When colon cancer is detected in its early stages, it may not have even caused symptoms. 
§  Diarrhea.
§  Constipation.
§  A feeling that the bowel does not empty properly after a bowel movement.
§  Blood in feces (stools).
§  Pains in the abdomen.
§  Bloating in the abdomen.
§  A feeling of fullness in the abdomen (maybe even after not eating for a while).
§  Vomiting.
§  Fatigue (tiredness).
§  Inexplicable weight loss.
§  A lump in the tummy or a lump in the back passage felt by your doctor.
§  Unexplained iron deficiency in men, or in women after the menopause.
Causes of colorectal cancer
Several risk factors have been identified over the years. The possible risk factors for colorectal factors are:
§  Being elderly - the older you are the higher the risk is.
§  A diet that is very high in animal protein.
§  A diet that is very high in saturated fats.
§  A diet that is very low in dietary fiber.
§  A diet that is very high in calories.
§  A diet that is very high in alcohol consumption.
§  Women who have had breast, ovary and uterus cancers.
§  A family history of colorectal cancer.
§  Patients with ulcerative colitis.
§  Being overweight/obese.
§  Smoking. This study found that smoking is significantly associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer and death.
§  Being physically inactive.
§  Presence of polyps in the colon/rectum. Untreated polyps may eventually become cancerous.
§  Having Crohn's disease or Irritable Bowel Disease have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer.


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