Tuesday, 20 September 2016

Lung cancer

Lung cancer
DefinitionLung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped and spongy organs inside the chest. The lungs function is breathing, they bring oxygen into the body when you inhale and send carbon dioxide out of the body when you exhale, and each lung has sections called lobes. Bronchi are two tubes which lead from the trachea to the lungs.
Causes Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer increases with the length of time and number of cigarettes you have smoked. Even after smoking for many years, if you quit smoking, you can significantly reduce your chances of developing lung cancer. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer and the number of deaths from lung cancer in women is increasing.

How is lung cancer classified?There are 3 main types of lung cancer. The type of lung cancer affects the treatment options and the prognosis too.
·         Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or NSCLC
NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer. In fact, almost 85% of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are all subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer.·         Small Cell Lung Cancer or SCLC
Small cell lung cancer is also called oat cell cancer. About 10%-15% of lung cancers are small cell lung cancers. This type of lung cancer tends to spread quickly.·         Lung Carcinoid TumorThey are also sometimes called lung neuroendocrine tumors. Less than 5% of lung cancers are lung carcinoid tumors. Most of these tumors grow slowly and rarely spread.NSCLC can be further divided into four different types, each with different treatment options:§  Squamous cell carcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma. As the most common type of NSCLC and the most common type of lung cancer in men, squamous cell carcinoma forms in the lining of the bronchial tubes.
§  Adenocarcinoma. As the most common type of lung cancer in women and in nonsmokers, it forms in the mucus-producing glands of the lungs.
§  Bronchioalveolar carcinoma. This is a rare type of adenocarcinoma that forms near the lungs air sacs.
§  Large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma. It is a rapidly growing cancer, large-cell undifferentiated carcinomas form near the outer edges or surface of the lungs.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by small cells that multiply quickly and form large tumors that travel throughout the body. It has been shown that almost all cases of SCLC are due to smoking. 

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