Tuesday, 20 September 2016

Normal Cells Versus Cancer Cells

Normal Cells Versus Cancer Cells 

The cell is the smallest structure of the body capable of performing all of the processes that define life. Each of the organs in the body consists of specialized cells that carry out the organs functions. All biological organisms are composed of cells which grow and divide in a controlled way in order to function properly. To assure the proper performance of each organ, injured cells must be replaced. However, certain changes in cells can cause them to grow uncontrollably resulting in a tumor. Normal cells stop dividing when enough cells are present but cancer cells don’t stop growing when there are enough cells present. This continued growth results in a tumor being formed. There are many differences between cancer cells and normal cells.
Features of normal cellsNormal cells have the ability to:
·         Normal cells are uniform and orderly.·         Reproduce in a correct way: normal cells multiply and then stop when enough cells are present.
·         Stop reproducing when needed: cells communicate through chemical signals which help normal cells to know when to reproduce and when to stop reproducing. Cells divide only when they receive the proper signals from growth factors that circulate in the bloodstream or from a cell they directly contact.
·         Remain in a specific location: cells have adhesion molecules on their surface that allow them to stay in their proper location.
·         Become specialized for specific functions: normal cells have the ability to differentiate or develop into specialized cells.
·         Self destruct when needed: Normal cells have the ability to self destruct when they become damaged or diseased.
  Features of cancer cellsCancer cells:·         Cancer cells size and shape are not normal or regular.
·         Cancer cells have an uncontrolled growth and divide at a rapid rate because they have lost their normal control mechanisms.
·         Cancer cells can lose specialised functions and do not carry on maturing once they have become cancerous.
·         Abnormal signalling pathway.
·         Week adhesion properties since cancer cells can lose the molecules on their surface that keep normal cells in their place.
The main difference between normal and cancer cells is that cancer cells have lost the control on growth.
In normal cells, a complex series of signaling pathways control the cell cycle(its growth and its division). This process also includes mechanisms to make sure the normal progress, and if not, the cells go into apoptosis. As a result of genetic mutations, in cancer cells, this process is altered, resulting in an uncontrolled cell proliferation.     

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