Tuesday, 8 November 2016

Prostate cancer


Prostate cancer is a disease which only affects men. Cancer begins to grow in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. The prostate gland makes fluid that forms part of semen. The prostate lies just below the bladder in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra. In most cases, the prostate cancer starts in the gland cells - this is called adenocarcinoma. Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms. Advanced prostate cancer can cause men to urinate more often or have a weaker flow of urine, but these symptoms can also be caused by benign prostate conditions.
Symptoms
There are no warning signs of early prostate cancer. Once a tumor causes the prostate gland to swell, or once cancer spreads beyond the prostate, the following symptoms may happen:
  • A frequent need to urinate, especially at night
  • Difficulty starting or stopping a stream of urine
  • A weak or interrupted urinary stream
  • A painful or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation
  • Blood in urine or semen
·         It's not clear what causes prostate cancer.
  • Leaking of urine when laughing or coughing
  • Inability to urinate standing up
Prostate cancer begins when some cells in your prostate become abnormal. Mutations in the abnormal cells' DNA cause the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can grow to invade nearby tissue. Some abnormal cells can break off and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.


Risk factors
Factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer include:
·         Older age. The risk of prostate cancer increases with age.
·         Being black. Black men have a greater risk of prostate cancer than do men of other races. In black men, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced. It's not clear why this is.
·         Family history of prostate or breast cancer. If men in your family have had prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.
·         Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely to have advanced disease that's more difficult to treat.


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