Thursday, 19 January 2017

Lymphoma causes and diagnosis

Lymphoma causes and diagnosis
Causes
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
§  Age - most non-Hodgkin lymphomas are in people 60 years of age and over
§  Sex - there are different rates of different types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma across the sexes
§  Ethnicity and location - in the US, African-Americans and Asian-Americans are less prone than white Americans, and the disease is more common in developed nations of the world
§  Chemicals and radiation - some chemicals used in agriculture have been linked, as has nuclear radiation exposure
§  Immune deficiency - for example, caused by HIV infection or in organ transplantation
§  Autoimmune disease, in which the immune system attacks the body's own cells
§  Infection - certain viral and bacterial infections increase the risk. The Helicobacter Infection has been implicated, as has the Epstein Barr Virus (the virus that causes glandular fever)13
Hodgkin's lymphoma
§  Infectious mononucleosis - infection with Epstein-Barr virus
§  Age - two specific groups are most affected: typically people in their 20s, and people over the age of 55 years
§  Sex - slightly more common in men
§  Location - most common in the US, Canada and northern Europe; least common in Asia
§  Family - if a sibling has the condition, the risk is slightly higher, and very high if there is an identical twin
§  Affluence - people from higher socioeconomic status are at greater risk
§  HIV infection

Diagnosis

 

-          Blood tests

The doctor may take some blood from the arm using a needle and syringe. This will be sent to a pathology laboratory to be examined. These tests will also tell the doctors how well the other organs such as liver and kidneys are working.

-          Bone marrow biopsy

Lymphoma cells can spread to bone marrow. In a bone marrow biopsy, a sample from the bone marrow is taken with a needle. The bone marrow is usually taken from the back of the hipbone.
The patient will have a local anaesthetic and possibly some sedative so he does not feel pain during the biopsy. The sample will be looked at under a microscope to see if the lymphoma has spread to the bone marrow.

-          Computerised tomography (CT) scan

A CT scan is a special type of x-ray that gives a three-dimensional (3-D) picture of the organs and other structures in the body. It usually takes about 30 to 40 minutes to complete this painless test.

-          Gallium scan

In this test the whole body is checked. The patient will have an injection of radioactive gallium, a sort of metal. After a few days, when it has had time to circulate around the body, the patient will return to the hospital to have pictures of the body taken with a special camera (a gamma camera).

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