Thursday, 22 September 2016

Causes of breast cancer

Causes of breast cancer
Women with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop breast cancer even if it is not totally clear what causes breast cancer. Breast cancer cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and continue to accumulate, forming a lump or mass.
About 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to gene mutations passed through generations of a family. A number of inherited mutated genes that can increase the likelihood of breast cancer have been identified. The most common are breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), both of which significantly increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancer.
Risk factors
A breast cancer risk factor is anything that makes it more likely to get breast cancer. But having one or even several breast cancer risk factors doesn't necessarily mean the person will develop breast cancer. Factors that are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer include:
·         Gender: Women are much more likely than men are to develop breast cancer.
·         History of breast cancer: If the subject had breast cancer in one breast, he has an increased risk of developing cancer in the other breast.
·         Age. The risk of breast cancer increases with age.
·         Inherited genes that increase cancer risk: Certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most common gene mutations are referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2.
·         Radiation exposure. 
·         Period at a younger age: Beginning the period before age 12 increases the risk of breast cancer.
·         A family history of breast cancer: If the mother, sister or daughter was diagnosed with breast cancer, particularly at a young age, the risk of breast cancer is increased.
·         Obesity: Being obese increases the risk of breast cancer.
·         Menopause at an older age. 
·         Having never been pregnant: Women who have never been pregnant have a greater risk of breast cancer than do women who have had one or more pregnancies.
·         Having the first child at an older age: Women who give birth to their first child after age 30 may have an increased risk of breast cancer.
·         Postmenopausal hormone therapy: Women who take hormone therapy medications that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have an increased risk of breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer decreases when women stop taking these medications.
·         Alcohol: Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer.

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