Tuesday, 20 September 2016

Types of cancer and diagnosis

Types of cancer and diagnosis

Types of cancer

There are many types of cancer that can’t be included in one single article, but they can be divided into categories. These are the most specific types of cancers found in each category.
  • Sarcoma: Cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue
  • Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
  • Leukemia: Cancer that starts in blood forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood.
  • Lymphoma and myeloma: Cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system.
  • Central nervous system cancers: Cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Metastatic cancers arise from a different tissue.
Diagnosis of cancer

Cancers might be diagnosed during routine screening examinations which are commonly done at a certain age. Cancer is nearly always diagnosed by a pathologist who has examined a tissue sample under a microscope. In laboratory tests, high or low levels of some markers in the body can be a sign of cancer like in blood, urine, or other body fluids, these tests permit measuring those markers. Also, imaging procedures create pictures of zones that help detecting whether a tumor is present. These pictures can be made in several ways:·         CT Scan: With an XRAY machine, a series of detailed pictures of the organs is created.·         Nuclear scan: A radioactive material is injected: a tracer. It flows through the bloodstream and collects in certain organs. A scanner detects the radioactivity and creates pictures of organs on a computer.·         Ultrasound: A computer uses sounds and echoes to create a picture of areas inside the body: a sonogram.
·         MRI: A strong magnet is used to make detailed pictures of the organs. The pictures are viewed on a monitor.·         PET scan: A tracer is injected and a machine makes 3-D pictures that show where the tracer collects in the body.·         X-rays: X-rays use low doses of radiation to create pictures of the organs.A biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of tissue is collected; under a microscope, the pathologist looks at the tissue to see if it contains cancer cells. The sample can be removed in different ways:
·         The physician uses a needle to have a sample from the tissue or the fluid.
·         The physician explores areas inside the body using a thin tube called an endoscope which is inserted through a natural opening, such as the mouth. Then, the physician uses a tool to take a sample.
·         Surgery may be excisional or incisional: in an excisional biopsy, the surgeon
 removes the entire tumor. Often some of the normal tissue around the tumor also is removed. In an incisional biopsy, the surgeon removes just part of the tumor.

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